Knee surgery is a surgical procedure for the treatment of a knee injury or condition. The procedure involves repairing diseased or damaged structures of the knee joint in order to eliminate pain and restore normal function.
Knee Fracture Surgery
A knee fracture is a broken bone or a crack in or around the joint of the knee. This can involve the tibia (shin bone), the kneecap (patella), or femur (thighbone) where they connect with the knee.
Knee fracture surgery is a surgical procedure performed to correct the cracked or broken bones in or around the knee to restore normal anatomical function, stability, and motion.
Minimally Invasive Knee Joint Replacement
Total knee replacement is a very successful surgical treatment for knee arthritis. Over the years, minimally invasive knee replacement surgical techniques have been developed to lessen tissue trauma and improve patient outcomes. This minimally invasive approach involves much smaller incisions than the usual 10-12 inch incisions used in the traditional knee replacement and spares the quadriceps muscle and tendon, which control bending of the knee, from being cut to access the knee joint.
Total Knee Replacement
Revision Knee Replacement
Computer Navigation for Total Knee Replacement
Computer navigation provides your surgeon with real-time 3-D images of your mapped knee and the surgical instruments during surgery. The data for the images is provided by infrared sensors fixed to the bones of the knee and surgical instruments. Their position is tracked by an infrared camera placed above the surgical table, which is connected to a computer.
What is New in Knee Replacement
If you are considering knee replacement surgery, there are new developments under study which can help enhance the quality of life.
Outpatient Total Knee Replacement
Total knee replacement is the surgical treatment for knee arthritis, where the damaged knee is removed and replaced with an artificial knee implant. Traditionally performed as an inpatient procedure, total knee replacement surgery is now being conducted on an outpatient basis, allowing you to go home on the same day of the surgery.
Tricompartmental Knee Replacement
Tricompartmental knee replacement, also called total knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the worn-out or damaged surfaces of the knee joint are removed and replaced with artificial parts.
Muscle Sparing Total Knee Replacement
Muscle sparing total knee replacement is a minimally invasive surgical approach that involves making a smaller incision of 4 to 6 inches in length as compared to a larger incision of 10 to 12 inches used in the traditional knee replacement and spares the quadriceps muscle and tendon, which control bending of the knee, from being cut to access the knee joint.
Lateral Approach Total Knee Replacement
Lateral approach total knee replacement is a surgical procedure employed for the treatment of valgus deformity of the osteoarthritic knee. The procedure involves approaching the knee joint from the lateral side of the patella (kneecap) or on the outer aspect of the knee to remove and replace the worn-out or damaged surfaces of the knee joint with a prosthesis to treat valgus deformity of the knee.
Muscle-sparing Knee Replacement
Muscle-sparing knee replacement, also known as quadriceps-sparing knee replacement, is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that introduces knee implants through a smaller incision than thattypically seen in traditional knee replacement, thus preventinginjury to the quadriceps muscle and tendon.
Primary Knee Replacement
Primary knee replacement, also referred to as primary total knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the worn out or damaged parts of the knee joint are removed and replaced with artificial knee joints called prostheses or implants. Artificial knee joints are usually made of metal, plastic, or ceramic and consist of the femoral and the tibial components.
Correction of a Failed Knee Replacement
Reoperation of a total knee replacement to resolve a painful knee condition and loss of motion arising out of a damaged or worn out prosthesis is known as correction of a failed knee replacement. This procedure involves a partial or complete exchange of the prostheses that were implanted during the original total knee replacement with new prostheses.
Correction of a Loose Knee Replacement
Reoperation of a total knee replacement to correct a loosened prosthesis as a result of wear and tear of the prosthetic joint surfaces is known as correction of a loose knee replacement. This procedure involves a complete or partial exchange of prostheses implanted during the original total knee replacement with new prostheses.
Rapid Recovery Knee Replacement
Rapid recovery knee replacement, also known as an outpatient knee replacement, is an innovative procedure that is performed to replace a damaged knee joint with a prosthesis using minimally invasive techniques and surgical instruments that minimize post-operative pain and discomfort and promote faster recovery for patients.
Patellofemoral Knee Replacement
Traditionally, arthritis in only one compartment of the knee is treated by partial knee replacement surgery. Patellofemoral knee replacement is a minimally invasive surgical option performed in the patellofemoral compartment only, preserving the knee parts not damaged by arthritis as well as the stabilizing anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL and PCL).
Correction of a Painful Knee Replacement
Reoperation of a total knee replacement to resolve a painful knee condition and loss of motion arising out of a damaged or worn out prosthesis is known as correction of a painful knee replacement. This procedure involves a complete or partial exchange of prostheses implanted during the original total knee replacement with new prostheses.
Painful or Failed Total Knee Replacement
The failure of total knee replacement surgery to provide pain relief and improved function despite replacing the damaged joint with a new prosthesis is known as painful or failed total knee replacement.
Complex Total Knee Replacement
Complex total knee replacement is employed in patients whose arthritis is especially severe, or who have already undergone a previous knee replacement in the same leg. The surgery takes about 2 to 3 hours to perform.
Limb lengthening is a reconstructive procedure where the deformed bone is straightened or missing bone is replaced. It is performed in children and adults who have variations in their leg length because of a disease, injury or birth defect. The limb lengthening procedure can be performed by minimally invasive techniques.
Patellofemoral realignment is a surgical procedure performed to treat symptomatic patellofemoral instability that does not respond to nonsurgical treatment measures.
Tibial Tubercle Transfer
Tibial tubercle transfer is a surgical procedure that is performed along with other procedures to treat patellar instability, patellofemoral pain, and osteoarthritis. The tibial tubercle transfer technique involves realignment of the tibial tubercle (a bump in the front of the shinbone) such that the kneecap (patella) traverses in the center of the femoral groove. The patellar maltracking is corrected by moving the tibial tubercle medially, towards the inside of the leg.
Tibial Derotational Osteotomy
Tibial derotational osteotomy is a surgical procedure employed to treat rotational deformities of the tibia, such as tibial torsion. This is a condition characterized by twisting of the tibial bone of the lower leg, causing malalignment of the knee and ankle with an appearance of an inward or outward turning of the feet.
Combined Hyaluronic Therapy for the Knee
Combined hyaluronic therapy is the process of injecting hyaluronic acid (HA) along with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) into your knee to treat osteoarthritis.
Osteoarthritis is a medical condition caused by degeneration of cartilage, the protective and natural cushioning tissue in your knee joint.
Traumatic Limb Salvage Surgery
Limb salvage surgery, also called limb-sparing surgery, is a surgical procedure that involves debridement- removal of the injured bone and surrounding tissues and reconstructing them into a functional limb. This may be done using an allograft, a bone graft from donor, metal implant, or a combination of metal implant and bone graft called allograft-prosthetic composite.
Lysis of Adhesions with Manipulation Under Anesthesia (MUA)
Adhesions in the knee involves the formation of bands of fibrous scar tissue between the knee components and surrounding soft tissue spaces over time. This is often caused after an injury that occurred during a previous surgery (knee arthroplasty) or following a traumatic knee injury resulting in a medical condition called arthrofibrosis (stiff knee syndrome).
Quadriceps Tendon Repair
Tibial nails are metal rods used to align and stabilize fractured fragments of the tibia or shinbone. The rods are passed through the bone marrow at the center of the tibia, across the fracture site. The rod is inserted through a small incision at either end of the shinbone and fixed at both ends with screws. Tibial nails are also called intramedullary (IM) devices, as they go inside of the bone.
Periprosthetic Knee Fracture Fixation
Periprosthetic knee fracture fixation is a procedure performed to stabilize a fracture that occurs in the bone present around a knee prosthesis. The fracture may involve the lower part of the thighbone (femur), the kneecap (patella) or the upper part of the shinbone (tibia).
ORIF of the Knee Fracture
A knee fracture is a break in the continuity of bone within the knee. This can involve the tibia (shinbone), kneecap (patella), or femur (thigh bone).
ORIF refers to open reduction and internal fixation. It is a surgical procedure employed for the treatment of a fracture not amenable to non-surgical conservative treatment.
Distal Femoral Osteotomy
An osteotomy is a surgical procedure that involves cutting of bone. The distal femur is part of the femur (thighbone) just above the knee joint. Distal femoral osteotomy is performed to correct knee alignment which can lead to excessive loading and degeneration of one side of the knee joint. The procedure involves cutting of the distal femur, repositioning the bones and securing them in the proper alignment.
Proximal Tibial Osteotomy
Proximal tibial osteotomy, also called a high tibial osteotomy, is a surgical procedure to cut and re-align the upper part of the tibia or shinbone. The procedure is performed to correct bowed legs, where the legs curve outward and place an excessive load on the inside of the knee, leading to cartilage loss and arthritis in this region.
Knee osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which the upper part of shinbone (tibia) or lower part of thighbone (femur) is cut and realigned. It is usually performed in arthritic conditions affecting only one side of your knee. The aim is to take the pressure off the damaged area and shift it to the other side of your knee with healthy cartilage.
High Tibial Osteotomy
High tibial osteotomy is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pressure on the damaged site of an arthritic knee joint. It is usually performed in arthritic conditions affecting only one side of your knee and the aim is to take pressure off the damaged area and shift it to the other side of your knee with healthy cartilage.
Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy
Tibial tubercle osteotomy is a surgical procedure that is performed along with other procedures to treat patellar instability, patellofemoral pain, and osteoarthritis. The tibial tubercle transfer technique involves realignment of the tibial tubercle (a bump in the front of the shinbone) such that the kneecap (patella) traverses in the center of the femoral groove.
Patellar Tendon Repair
Distal Realignment Procedures
Distal realignment procedures, also known as tibial tubercle transfer (TTT) procedures, are performed to reposition the kneecap after subluxation or dislocation by realigning the tendon under the kneecap to the underlying tibial tubercle.
Knee implants are artificial devices that form the essential parts of the knee during a knee replacement surgery. The knee implants vary by size, shape, and material. Implants are made of biocompatible materials that are accepted by the body without producing any rejection response.
Knee Trauma Reconstruction
Knee trauma reconstruction is a surgical procedure to repair a soft-tissue injury of the knee such as a torn ligament using a tissue graft or replacing the damaged bony surfaces of the knee joint with an artificial knee joint called a prosthesis. Artificial knee joints are usually made of metal, ceramic or plastic, and consist of the femoral and the tibial components.
Am I a Candidate for Knee Surgery?
Arthritis of the knee can cause pain and stiffness, making regular activities such as walking and bending difficult. As arthritis progresses, conservative treatments tend to lose their efficacy and more definitive treatment should be considered. Knee replacement surgery involves replacing worn or damaged joints with implants to reduce pain and improve movement.
Nonsurgical Knee Treatments
The non-operative orthopedic treatment options include non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions. They are aimed at providing symptomatic relief and improving the quality of life of the patients. They can be used as a treatment option to treat certain conditions or to decrease pain as well as promoting functioning and quality of life after the surgical treatment.
Pre-op and Post-op Knee Guidelines
Planning for your knee surgery prepares you for the operation and helps to ensure a smooth surgery and easier recovery. Here are certain pre-operative and post-operative guidelines which will help you prepare for knee surgery.
Knee Replacement Exercise Guide
Exercising the muscles that surround and support the knee help restore range of motion and joint strength after knee replacement surgery. To ensure a positive surgical outcome after knee replacement, you are recommended to perform physical therapy exercises 2-3 times a day and walk for 30 minutes every day. You will be provided with a specific exercise routine by your doctor.
Viscosupplementation refers to the injection of a hyaluronan preparation into the joint. Hyaluronan is a natural substance present in the joint fluid that assists in lubrication. It allows the smooth movement of the cartilage-covered articulating surfaces of the joint.
After Knee Replacement
After knee replacement surgery, once the anesthesia wears off, you will start to experience pain, for which your doctor will prescribe medication. You may have to remain in the hospital for a few days depending on your progress and overall health. Remember to get plenty of rest during this initial phase. Your surgical wounds should be monitored for swelling, inflammation and other changes and frequent dressing changes are performed.
Intraarticular Knee Injection
An intra-articular knee injection is a very effective form of treatment where medicine is delivered directly into the knee joint with the primary objective of relieving pain from conditions such as arthritis.
Intra-articular knee injections are usually recommended when the pain has not responded to traditional conservative treatments such as anti-inflammatory medications, physical therapy, activity modification, or ice therapy.
Physical Examination of the Knee
A complete physical examination of the knee is performed when you present to your doctor with a knee complaint. Both of your knees are examined and the results of the injured knee are compared to those of the healthy knee.
Care of the Aging Knee
The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain-free movement in the joint. When the articular cartilage wears out, the bone ends rub on one another and cause pain. This is known as arthritis. The most common type of arthritis is osteoarthritis that occurs with aging and use.