What is Trauma?
Trauma is defined as a sudden incident causing physical injury. It is a broad term describing all types of injuries affecting the muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, nerves, blood vessels, or bones that most commonly occur during sports, exercise, or any other physical activity. Trauma may be a result of accidents, poor training practices, insufficient warm-up and stretching exercises, or from use of improper gear. The term is wide-ranging and may include sprains, strains, minor fractures, dislocations, or serious broken bones with a direct threat to the patient’s life.
A Bone Fracture
A bone fracture is a medical condition in which a bone is cracked or broken. It is a break in the continuity of the bone. While many fractures are the result of high-force impact or stress, bone fractures can also occur because of certain medical conditions that weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis.
A fracture may be complete or partial and is commonly caused by trauma due to a fall, motor vehicle accident or sports injury. Thinning of the bone due to osteoporosis in the elderly can also cause bones to break easily. Overuse injuries are a common cause of stress fractures in athletes.
Types of fractures
Simple fracture : The fractured pieces of bone are well aligned and stable Unstable fracture- the fragments of the broken bone are misaligned and displaced.
Open (compound) fracture : A severe fracture in which the broken bones protrude through the skin. This type of fracture is more prone to infection and requires immediate medical attention.
Greenstick fracture : A fracture unique to children, where one side of the bone is broken while the other is bent.
Fractures are more common in children due to their activities as well as their bone properties. Children are more active than adults and the management of fractures in them also differs as compared to that in adults. Fractures occur when the bone is subjected to excessive stress than normal.
Adult Forearm Fractures
The forearm is made up of 2 bones, namely, the radius and ulna. The primary function of your forearm is rotation i.e., the ability to turn your palm up and down. The fracture of the forearm affects the ability to rotate your arm, as well as bend and straighten the wrist and elbow.
A fracture is defined as a break in the continuity of the bone when a force against your body is too strong for the bone to bear. Geriatric fractures refer to a broken bone in older adults or individuals over 65 years of age. This geriatric age group has both an increased predisposition to injury and an increased rate of trauma from even minimal force.
Malunion & Nonunion Fractures
Malunion of a fracture is a condition where the fractured ends of a bone heal in a misaligned position resulting in bone deformity. Malunions may occur in any bone fractures in the body often due to trauma.
Traumatic Limb Salvage Surgery
Limb salvage surgery, also called limb-sparing surgery, is a surgical procedure that involves debridement- removal of the injured bone and surrounding tissues and reconstructing them into a functional limb. This may be done using an allograft, a bone graft from donor, metal implant, or a combination of metal implant and bone graft called allograft-prosthetic composite.
Amputation is the surgical removal of a part of the body as a result of a traumatic injury or disease conditions such as diabetes or peripheral vascular disease (PAD).